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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(6), 458; doi:10.3390/rs8060458

Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

1
Grupo de Teledetección Cuantitativa, Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Int. Guiraldez 2700, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina
2
Departamento de Proyectos e Ingeniería Rural, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, Pamplona 31006, Spain
3
Cátedra de Conservación y Manejo de Suelos, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Pcia. de Buenos Aires (UNICEN), Gral. Pinto 399, Tandil 7000, Argentina
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José A.M. Demattê, Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applied to Soils: From Ground to Space)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2876 KB, uploaded 8 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm) to small ones (1 mm), with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface soil roughness; laser profiler; height standard deviation; correlation length; radar applications; scattering models surface soil roughness; laser profiler; height standard deviation; correlation length; radar applications; scattering models
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barber, M.E.; Grings, F.M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Piscitelli, M.; Perna, P.A.; Karszenbaum, H. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 458.

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