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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(3), 258; doi:10.3390/rs8030258

An Automatic Building Extraction and Regularisation Technique Using LiDAR Point Cloud Data and Orthoimage

1
Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia
2
School of Information and Communication Technology Griffith Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111, Australia
3
School of Engineering and Information Technology, Federation University Australia, Churchill VIC 3842, Australia
This paper is an extended version of our paper Fusion of LiDAR data and multispectral imagery for effective building detection based on graph and connected component analysis, published in The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Randolph H. Wynne and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 6 December 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
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Abstract

The development of robust and accurate methods for automatic building detection and regularisation using multisource data continues to be a challenge due to point cloud sparsity, high spectral variability, urban objects differences, surrounding complexity, and data misalignment. To address these challenges, constraints on object’s size, height, area, and orientation are generally benefited which adversely affect the detection performance. Often the buildings either small in size, under shadows or partly occluded are ousted during elimination of superfluous objects. To overcome the limitations, a methodology is developed to extract and regularise the buildings using features from point cloud and orthoimagery. The building delineation process is carried out by identifying the candidate building regions and segmenting them into grids. Vegetation elimination, building detection and extraction of their partially occluded parts are achieved by synthesising the point cloud and image data. Finally, the detected buildings are regularised by exploiting the image lines in the building regularisation process. Detection and regularisation processes have been evaluated using the ISPRS benchmark and four Australian data sets which differ in point density (1 to 29 points/m2), building sizes, shadows, terrain, and vegetation. Results indicate that there is 83% to 93% per-area completeness with the correctness of above 95%, demonstrating the robustness of the approach. The absence of over- and many-to-many segmentation errors in the ISPRS data set indicate that the technique has higher per-object accuracy. While compared with six existing similar methods, the proposed detection and regularisation approach performs significantly better on more complex data sets (Australian) in contrast to the ISPRS benchmark, where it does better or equal to the counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: point cloud; orthoimage; segmentation; graph; detection; regularisation; footprint; occlusion; shadow; vegetation point cloud; orthoimage; segmentation; graph; detection; regularisation; footprint; occlusion; shadow; vegetation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gilani, S.A.N.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G. An Automatic Building Extraction and Regularisation Technique Using LiDAR Point Cloud Data and Orthoimage. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 258.

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