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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 846; doi:10.3390/rs8100846

Secondary Fault Activity of the North Anatolian Fault near Avcilar, Southwest of Istanbul: Evidence from SAR Interferometry Observations

1
State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077, China
2
GFZ-German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam 14473, Germany
3
e-GEOS—An ASI/Telespazio Company, Via Tiburtina 965, Rome 00156, Italy
4
Department of Geodesy, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Boğazici University, Istanbul 34680, Turkey
5
DLR German Aerospace Center, Microwaves and Radar Institute, Weßling 82234, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Magaly Koch and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract

Strike-slip faults may be traced along thousands of kilometers, e.g., the San Andreas Fault (USA) or the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey). A closer look at such continental-scale strike faults reveals localized complexities in fault geometry, associated with fault segmentation, secondary faults and a change of related hazards. The North Anatolian Fault displays such complexities nearby the mega city Istanbul, which is a place where earthquake risks are high, but secondary processes are not well understood. In this paper, long-term persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data time series was used to precisely identify the surface deformation pattern associated with the faulting complexity at the prominent bend of the North Anatolian Fault near Istanbul city. We elaborate the relevance of local faulting activity and estimate the fault status (slip rate and locking depth) for the first time using satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR) technology. The studied NW-SE-oriented fault on land is subject to strike-slip movement at a mean slip rate of ~5.0 mm/year and a shallow locking depth of <1.0 km and thought to be directly interacting with the main fault branch, with important implications for tectonic coupling. Our results provide the first geodetic evidence on the segmentation of a major crustal fault with a structural complexity and associated multi-hazards near the inhabited regions of Istanbul, with similarities also to other major strike-slip faults that display changes in fault traces and mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: fault activity; interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR); persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI); Istanbul; seismic hazard assessment; North Anatolian fault fault activity; interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR); persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI); Istanbul; seismic hazard assessment; North Anatolian fault
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Diao, F.; Walter, T.R.; Minati, F.; Wang, R.; Costantini, M.; Ergintav, S.; Xiong, X.; Prats-Iraola, P. Secondary Fault Activity of the North Anatolian Fault near Avcilar, Southwest of Istanbul: Evidence from SAR Interferometry Observations. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 846.

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