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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(8), 9507-9528; doi:10.3390/rs70809507

Toward Sentinel-2 High Resolution Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Very Turbid Waters: SPOT4 (Take5) Experiment in the Loire and Gironde Estuaries

1
EA 2160 Mer Molécules Santé (MMS), Université de Nantes, 2 chemin de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes, France
2
GEO-Transfert, UMR 5805 Environnements et Paléo-environnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC), Université de Bordeaux, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
3
SEA, Bordeaux Technowest, 25 rue Marcel Issartier, 33700 Mérignac, France
4
UMR 5805 Environnements et Paléo-environnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC), Université de Bordeaux, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
5
Groupement d'intérêt public (GIP) Loire Estuaire, 22 rue de la Tour d'Auvergne, 44200 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Olivier Hagolle, Benjamin Koetz, Olivier Arino, Sylvia Sylvander, Deepak R. Mishra and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [24857 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

At the end of the SPOT4 mission, a four-month experiment was conducted in 2013 to acquire high spatial (20 m) and high temporal (5 days) resolution satellite data. In addition to the SPOT4 (Take5) dataset, we used several Landsat5, 7, 8 images to document the variations in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration in the turbid Gironde and Loire estuaries (France). Satellite-derived SPM concentration was validated using automated in situ turbidity measurements from two monitoring networks. The combination of a multi-temporal atmospheric correction method with a near-infrared to visible reflectance band ratio made it possible to quantify SPM surface concentration in moderately to extremely turbid waters (38–4320 g·m−3), at an accuracy sufficient to detect the maximum turbidity zone (MTZ) in both estuaries. Such a multi-sensor approach can be applied to high spatial resolution satellite archives and to the new ESA Sentinel-2 mission. It offers a promising framework to study the response of estuarine ecosystems to global changes at unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-2; SPOT4 (Take5); suspended particulate matter; turbidity; Gironde; Loire; estuary Sentinel-2; SPOT4 (Take5); suspended particulate matter; turbidity; Gironde; Loire; estuary
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gernez, P.; Lafon, V.; Lerouxel, A.; Curti, C.; Lubac, B.; Cerisier, S.; Barillé, L. Toward Sentinel-2 High Resolution Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Very Turbid Waters: SPOT4 (Take5) Experiment in the Loire and Gironde Estuaries. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 9507-9528.

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