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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(7), 9205-9229; doi:10.3390/rs70709205

Incorporating Endmember Variability into Linear Unmixing of Coarse Resolution Imagery: Mapping Large-Scale Impervious Surface Abundance Using a Hierarchically Object-Based Spectral Mixture Analysis

Department of Geography, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
Academic Editors: Arko Lucieer, Alfredo R. Huete and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
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Abstract

As an important indicator of anthropogenic impacts on the Earth’s surface, it is of great necessity to accurately map large-scale urbanized areas for various science and policy applications. Although spectral mixture analysis (SMA) can provide spatial distribution and quantitative fractions for better representations of urban areas, this technique is rarely explored with 1-km resolution imagery. This is due mainly to the absence of image endmembers associated with the mixed pixel problem. Consequently, as the most profound source of error in SMA, endmember variability has rarely been considered with coarse resolution imagery. These issues can be acute for fractional land cover mapping due to the significant spectral variations of numerous land covers across a large study area. To solve these two problems, a hierarchically object-based SMA (HOBSMA) was developed (1) to extrapolate local endmembers for regional spectral library construction; and (2) to incorporate endmember variability into linear spectral unmixing of MODIS 1-km imagery for large-scale impervious surface abundance mapping. Results show that by integrating spatial constraints from object-based image segments and endmember extrapolation techniques into multiple endmember SMA (MESMA) of coarse resolution imagery, HOBSMA improves the discriminations between urban impervious surfaces and other land covers with well-known spectral confusions (e.g., bare soil and water), and particularly provides satisfactory representations of urban fringe areas and small settlements. HOBSMA yields promising abundance results at the km-level scale with relatively high precision and small bias, which considerably outperforms the traditional simple mixing model and the aggregated MODIS land cover classification product. View Full-Text
Keywords: endmember variability; spectral mixture analysis; multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis; impervious surface; MODIS endmember variability; spectral mixture analysis; multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis; impervious surface; MODIS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Deng, C. Incorporating Endmember Variability into Linear Unmixing of Coarse Resolution Imagery: Mapping Large-Scale Impervious Surface Abundance Using a Hierarchically Object-Based Spectral Mixture Analysis. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 9205-9229.

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