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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(6), 7212-7230; doi:10.3390/rs70607212

Inter-Calibrating SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S Data to Improve the Consistency of Snow-Depth Products in China

1
Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Gansu Province, Heihe Remote Sensing Experimental Research Station, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yuei-An Liou, Rosa Lasaponara and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8306 KB, uploaded 2 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Long-term snow depth/snow water equivalent (SWE) products derived from passive microwave remote sensing data are fundamental for climatological and hydrological studies. However, the temporal continuity of the products is affected by the updating or replacement of passive microwave sensors or satellite platforms. In this study, we inter-calibrated brightness temperature (Tb) data obtained from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMI/S). Then, we evaluated the consistency of the snow cover area (SCA) and snow depth derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), SSM/I and SSMI/S. The results indicated that (1) the spatial pattern of the SCA derived from the SMMR and SSM/I data was more consistent after calibration than before; (2) the relative biases in the SCA and snow depth in China between the SSM/I and SSMI/S data decreased from 42.42% to 1.65% and from 66.18% to −1.5%, respectively; and (3) the SCA and snow depth derived from the SSM/I data carried on F08, F11 and F13 were highly consistent. To obtain consistent snow depth and SCA products, inter-sensor calibrations between SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S are important. In consideration of the snow data product continuation, we suggest that the brightness temperature data from all sensors be calibrated based on SSMI/S. View Full-Text
Keywords: calibration; snow cover; snow depth; passive microwave remote sensing calibration; snow cover; snow depth; passive microwave remote sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dai, L.; Che, T.; Ding, Y. Inter-Calibrating SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S Data to Improve the Consistency of Snow-Depth Products in China. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 7212-7230.

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