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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(6), 6558-6575; doi:10.3390/rs70606558

Improved Topographic Normalization for Landsat TM Images by Introducing the MODIS Surface BRDF

1
College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Gansu Province, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexander Kokhanovsky and Prasad Thenkabail
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [14063 KB, uploaded 26 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

In rugged terrain, the accuracy of surface reflectance estimations is compromised by atmospheric and topographic effects. We propose a new method to simultaneously eliminate atmospheric and terrain effects in Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images based on a 30 m digital elevation model (DEM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric products. Moreover, we define a normalized factor of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) to convert the sloping pixel reflectance into a flat pixel reflectance by using the Ross Thick-Li Sparse BRDF model (Ambrals algorithm) and MODIS BRDF/albedo kernel coefficient products. Sole atmospheric correction and topographic normalization were performed for TM images in the upper stream of the Heihe River Basin. The results show that using MODIS atmospheric products can effectively remove atmospheric effects compared with the Fast Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) model and the Landsat Climate Data Record (CDR). Moreover, superior topographic effect removal can be achieved by considering the surface BRDF when compared with the surface Lambertian assumption of topographic normalization. View Full-Text
Keywords: topographic correction; Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) characteristics; Ambrals algorithm; solar radiation; atmospheric correction topographic correction; Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) characteristics; Ambrals algorithm; solar radiation; atmospheric correction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, Y.; Li, X.; Wen, J.; Liu, Q.; Yan, G. Improved Topographic Normalization for Landsat TM Images by Introducing the MODIS Surface BRDF. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 6558-6575.

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