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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(3), 2731-2751; doi:10.3390/rs70302731

Normalization of Echo Features Derived from Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data

Department of Environmental Information and Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, No.75, Shiyuan Rd., Taoyuan, Taiwan
Academic Editors: Randolph H. Wynne and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [46437 KB, uploaded 9 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Full-waveform airborne laser scanning systems provide fundamental observations for each echo, such as the echo width and amplitude. Geometric and physical information about illuminated surfaces are simultaneously provided by a single scanner. However, there are concerns about whether the physical meaning of observations is consistent among different scanning missions. Prior to the application of waveform features for multi-temporal data classification, such features must be normalized. This study investigates the transferability of normalized waveform features to different surveys. The backscatter coefficient is considered to be a normalized physical feature. A normalization process for the echo width, which is a geometric feature, is proposed. The process is based on the coefficient of variation of the echo widths in a defined neighborhood, for which the Fuzzy Small membership function is applied. The normalized features over various land cover types and flight missions are investigated. The effects of different feature combinations on the classification accuracy are analyzed. The overall accuracy of the combination of normalized features and height-based attributes achieves promising results (>93% overall accuracy for ground, roof, low vegetation, and tree canopy) when different flight missions and classifiers are used. Nevertheless, the combination of all possible features, including raw features, normalized features, and height-based features, performs less well and yields inconsistent results. View Full-Text
Keywords: ALS; full-waveform; normalization ALS; full-waveform; normalization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lin, Y.-C. Normalization of Echo Features Derived from Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 2731-2751.

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