Next Article in Journal
A Framework for Defining Spatially Explicit Earth Observation Requirements for a Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative (GEOGLAM)
Next Article in Special Issue
A Semi-Analytical Model for Remote Sensing Retrieval of Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Gulf of Bohai, China
Previous Article in Journal
Integrating Multiple Source Data to Enhance Variation and Weaken the Blooming Effect of DMSP-OLS Light
Previous Article in Special Issue
Oil Spill Detection in Glint-Contaminated Near-Infrared MODIS Imagery
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(2), 1441-1460; doi:10.3390/rs70201441

Monitoring of the 2011 Super Algal Bloom in Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA, Using MERIS

1
Department of Integrated Environmental Science, Bethune-Cookman University, 640 Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA
2
St. Johns River Water Management District, PO Box 1429, Palatka, FL 32178, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Deepak Mishra and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 6 December 2014 / Revised: 25 December 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Water Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [12458 KB, uploaded 29 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

During the spring of 2011 an unprecedented “Super” algal bloom formed in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), with Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations over eight times the historical mean in some areas and lasted for seven months across the IRL. The European Space Agency’s MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) platform provided multispectral data at 665 and 708 nm, which was used to quantify the phytoplankton Chl a by fluorescence while minimizing the effects of other water column constituents. The three objectives were to: (1) calibrate and validate two Chl a algorithms using all available MERIS data of the IRL from 2002 to 2012; (2) determine the accuracy of the algorithms estimation of Chl a before, during, and after the 2011 super bloom; and (3) map the 2011 algal bloom using the Chl a algorithm that was proven to be effective in other similar estuaries. The chosen algorithm, Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI), was positively correlated with the in-situ measurements, with an R2 value of 0.798. While there was a significant (62.9 ± 25%) underestimation of Chl a using MERIS NDCI, the underestimation appears to be consistent across the data and mostly in the estimations of lower concentrations, suggesting that a qualitative or ratio analysis is still valid. Analysis of the application of the NDCI processed MERIS data provided additional insights that the in-situ measurements were unable to record. The time series MERIS Chl a maps along with in-situ water quality monitoring data depicted that the 2011 IRL bloom started after a heavy rainfall in March 2011 and peaked in October 2011 after a decrease in temperature. The bloom collapse also coincided with heavy rainfall and rapidly decreasing temperatures and salinity through October to November 2011. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlorophyll a (Chl a); satellite remote sensing; MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer; algal bloom; Indian River Lagoon Chlorophyll a (Chl a); satellite remote sensing; MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer; algal bloom; Indian River Lagoon
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kamerosky, A.; Cho, H.J.; Morris, L. Monitoring of the 2011 Super Algal Bloom in Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA, Using MERIS. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 1441-1460.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top