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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(8), 7660-7682; doi:10.3390/rs6087660
Article

Evaluation of the Surface Water Distribution in North-Central Namibia Based on MODIS and AMSR Series

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 4
Received: 31 March 2014; in revised form: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
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Abstract: Semi-arid North-central Namibia has high potential for rice cultivation because large seasonal wetlands (oshana) form during the rainy season. Evaluating the distribution of surface water would reveal the area potentially suitable for rice cultivation. In this study, we detected the distribution of surface water with high spatial and temporal resolution by using two types of complementary satellite data: MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System), using AMSR2 after AMSR-E became unavailable. We combined the modified normalized-difference water index (MNDWI) from the MODIS data with the normalized-difference polarization index (NDPI) from the AMSR-E and AMSR2 data to determine the area of surface water. We developed a simple gap-filling method (“database unmixing”) with the two indices, thereby providing daily 500-m-resolution MNDWI maps of north-central Namibia regardless of whether the sky was clear. Moreover, through receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analysis, we determined the threshold MNDWI (−0.316) for wetlands. Using ROC analysis, MNDWI had moderate performance (the area under the ROC curve was 0.747), and the recognition error for seasonal wetlands and dry land was 21.2%. The threshold MNDWI let us calculate probability of water presence (PWP) maps for the rainy season and the whole year. The PWP maps revealed the total area potentially suitable for rice cultivation: 1255 km2 (1.6% of the study area).
Keywords: surface water distribution; MODIS; AMSR-E; AMSR2; database unmixing; ROC analysis surface water distribution; MODIS; AMSR-E; AMSR2; database unmixing; ROC analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mizuochi, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ohta, T.; Nasahara, K.N. Evaluation of the Surface Water Distribution in North-Central Namibia Based on MODIS and AMSR Series. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 7660-7682.

AMA Style

Mizuochi H, Hiyama T, Ohta T, Nasahara KN. Evaluation of the Surface Water Distribution in North-Central Namibia Based on MODIS and AMSR Series. Remote Sensing. 2014; 6(8):7660-7682.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mizuochi, Hiroki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Ohta, Takeshi; Nasahara, Kenlo N. 2014. "Evaluation of the Surface Water Distribution in North-Central Namibia Based on MODIS and AMSR Series." Remote Sens. 6, no. 8: 7660-7682.


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