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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(8), 7233-7259; doi:10.3390/rs6087233

Remote Geophysical Observatory in Antarctica with HF Data Transmission: A Review

1
GR-SETAD La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, Quatre Camins 30, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
2
Observatori de l'Ebre, CSIC, Universitat Ramon Llull, Horta Alta 38, 43520 Roquetes, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 23 July 2014 / Accepted: 24 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract

The geophysical observatory in the Antarctic Spanish Station, Juan Carlos I (ASJI), on Livingston Island, has been monitoring the magnetic field in the Antarctic region for more than fifteen years. In 2004, a vertical incidence ionospheric sounder completed the observatory, which brings a significant added value in a region with low density of geophysical data. Although the ASJI is only operative during the austral summer, the geomagnetic station records the data throughout the year. A High Frequency (HF) transmission system was installed in 2004 in order to have the geomagnetic data available during the whole year. As the power supply is very limited when the station is not operative, we had to design a low-power HF transceiver with a very simple antenna, due to environmental aspects. Moreover, the flow of information was unidirectional, so the modulation had to be extremely robust since there is no retransmission in case of error. This led us to study the main parameters of the ionospheric channel and to design new modulations specially adapted to very low signal to noise scenarios with high levels of interference. In this paper, a review of the results of our remote geophysical observatory and associated transmission system in Antarctica during the last decade is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: HF; ionosphere; spread spectrum; channel sounding; geomagnetism; observatories; remote sensors; advanced modulations HF; ionosphere; spread spectrum; channel sounding; geomagnetism; observatories; remote sensors; advanced modulations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pijoan, J.L.; Altadill, D.; Torta, J.M.; Alsina-Pagès, R.M.; Marsal, S.; Badia, D. Remote Geophysical Observatory in Antarctica with HF Data Transmission: A Review. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 7233-7259.

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