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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(6), 5795-5814; doi:10.3390/rs6065795

Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Image Based on Kernel Extreme Learning Machine

1
,
2,* , 3,* and 1
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
2
College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
3
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
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Abstract

Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a single-layer feedforward neural network based classifier that has attracted significant attention in computer vision and pattern recognition due to its fast learning speed and strong generalization. In this paper, we propose to integrate spectral-spatial information for hyperspectral image classification and exploit the benefits of using spatial features for the kernel based ELM (KELM) classifier. Specifically, Gabor filtering and multihypothesis (MH) prediction preprocessing are two approaches employed for spatial feature extraction. Gabor features have currently been successfully applied for hyperspectral image analysis due to the ability to represent useful spatial information. MH prediction preprocessing makes use of the spatial piecewise-continuous nature of hyperspectral imagery to integrate spectral and spatial information. The proposed Gabor-filtering-based KELM classifier and MH-prediction-based KELM classifier have been validated on two real hyperspectral datasets. Classification results demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform the conventional pixel-wise classifiers as well as Gabor-filtering-based support vector machine (SVM) and MH-prediction-based SVM in challenging small training sample size conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gabor filter; hyperspectral image classification; spectral-spatial analysis; kernel extreme learning machine; multihypothesis (MH) prediction Gabor filter; hyperspectral image classification; spectral-spatial analysis; kernel extreme learning machine; multihypothesis (MH) prediction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.; Li, W.; Su, H.; Liu, K. Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Image Based on Kernel Extreme Learning Machine. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 5795-5814.

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