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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4149-4172; doi:10.3390/rs6054149
Article

Determination of Carbonate Rock Chemistry Using Laboratory-Based Hyperspectral Imagery

1,2,* , 1
 and 1
Received: 6 December 2013; in revised form: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
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Abstract: The development of advanced laboratory-based imaging hyperspectral sensors, such as SisuCHEMA, has created an opportunity to extract compositional information of mineral mixtures from spectral images. Determining proportions of minerals on rock surfaces based on spectral signature is a challenging approach due to naturally-occurring minerals that exist in the form of intimate mixtures, and grain size variations. This study demonstrates the application of SisuCHEMA hyperspectral data to determine mineral components in hand specimens of carbonate rocks. Here, we applied wavelength position, spectral angle mapper (SAM) and linear spectral unmixing (LSU) approaches to estimate the chemical composition and the relative abundance of carbonate minerals on the rock surfaces. The accuracy of these classification methods and correlation between mineral chemistry and mineral spectral characteristics in determining mineral constituents of rocks are also analyzed. Results showed that chemical composition (Ca-Mg ratio) of carbonate minerals at a pixel (e.g., sub-grain) level can be extracted from the image pixel spectra using these spectral analysis methods. The results also indicated that the spatial distribution and the proportions of calcite-dolomite mixtures on the rock surfaces vary between the spectral methods. For the image shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectra, the wavelength position approach was found to be sensitive to all compositional variations of carbonate mineral mixtures when compared to the SAM and LSU approaches. The correlation between geochemical elements and spectroscopic parameters also revealed the presence of these carbonate mixtures with various chemical compositions in the rock samples. This study concludes that the wavelength position approach is a stable and reproducible technique for estimating carbonate mineral chemistry on the rock surfaces using laboratory-based hyperspectral data.
Keywords: SisuCHEMA hyperspectral data; carbonate rocks; mineral mixtures; SWIR reflectance spectra; spectral recognition approaches; geochemical analysis SisuCHEMA hyperspectral data; carbonate rocks; mineral mixtures; SWIR reflectance spectra; spectral recognition approaches; geochemical analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaini, N.; van der Meer, F.; van der Werff, H. Determination of Carbonate Rock Chemistry Using Laboratory-Based Hyperspectral Imagery. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 4149-4172.

AMA Style

Zaini N, van der Meer F, van der Werff H. Determination of Carbonate Rock Chemistry Using Laboratory-Based Hyperspectral Imagery. Remote Sensing. 2014; 6(5):4149-4172.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaini, Nasrullah; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald. 2014. "Determination of Carbonate Rock Chemistry Using Laboratory-Based Hyperspectral Imagery." Remote Sens. 6, no. 5: 4149-4172.


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