Next Article in Journal
Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns
Previous Article in Journal
Classifying Complex Mountainous Forests with L-Band SAR and Landsat Data Integration: A Comparison among Different Machine Learning Methods in the Hyrcanian Forest
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3648-3661; doi:10.3390/rs6053648

Long-Term Land Subsidence Monitoring of Beijing (China) Using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) Technique

1,* , 1
1 State Key Laboratory of Dynamical Geodesy, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077, China 2 Heilongjiang Institute of Technology, Harbin 150050, China 3 Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan 430010, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1864 KB, 19 June 2014; original version 19 June 2014]   |  


Advanced techniques of multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) represent a valuable tool in ground subsidence studies allowing remote investigation of the behavior of mass movements in long time intervals by using large datasets of SAR images covering the same area and acquired at different epochs. Beijing is susceptible to subsidence, producing undesirable environmental impacts and affecting dense population. Excessive groundwater withdrawal is thought to be the primary cause of land subsidence, and rapid urbanization and economic development, mass construction of skyscrapers, highways and underground engineering facilities (e.g., subway) are also contributing factors. In this paper, a spatial–temporal analysis of the land subsidence in Beijing was performed using one of the MT-InSAR techniques, referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS). This technique allows monitoring the temporal evolution of a deformation phenomenon, via the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series from a data set of acquired SAR images. 52 C-band ENVISAT ASAR images acquired from June 2003 to August 2010 were used to produce a linear deformation rate map and to derive time series of ground deformation. The results show that there are three large subsidence funnels within this study area, which separately located in Balizhuang-Dajiaoting in Chaoyang district, Wangjing-Laiguangying Chaoyang district, Gaoliying Shunyi district. The maximum settlement center is Wangsiying-Tongzhou along the Beijing express; the subsidence velocity exceeds 110 mm/y in the LOS direction. In particular, we compared the achieved results with leveling measurements that are assumed as reference. The estimated long-term subsidence results obtained by SBAS approach agree well with the development of the over-exploitation of ground water, indicating that SBAS techniques is adequate for the retrieval of land subsidence in Beijing from multi-temporal SAR data.
Keywords: small baseline subset (SBAS); time-series analysis; Beijing; ground subsidence small baseline subset (SBAS); time-series analysis; Beijing; ground subsidence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, B.; Wang, H.-S.; Sun, Y.-L.; Hou, J.-G.; Liang, J. Long-Term Land Subsidence Monitoring of Beijing (China) Using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) Technique. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 3648-3661.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert