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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(11), 10813-10834; doi:10.3390/rs61110813

Modeling and Mapping of Soil Salinity with Reflectance Spectroscopy and Landsat Data Using Two Quantitative Methods (PLSR and MARS)

1
Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Krakow 30-387, Poland
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
3
Environmental Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics, Trier University, 54286 Trier, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
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Abstract

The monitoring of soil salinity levels is necessary for the prevention and mitigation of land degradation in arid environments. To assess the potential of remote sensing in estimating and mapping soil salinity in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, two predictive models were constructed based on the measured soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and laboratory soil reflectance spectra resampled to Landsat sensor’s resolution. The models used were partial least squares regression (PLSR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). The results indicated that a good prediction of the soil salinity can be made based on the MARS model (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 6.53, and ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) = 1.96), which performed better than the PLSR model (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 6.95, and RPD = 1.82). The models were subsequently applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to the reflectance values derived from two Landsat images (2006 and 2012) to generate quantitative maps of the soil salinity. The resulting maps were validated successfully for 37 and 26 sampling points for 2006 and 2012, respectively, with R2 = 0.72 and 0.74 for 2006 and 2012, respectively, for the MARS model, and R2 = 0.71 and 0.73 for 2006 and 2012, respectively, for the PLSR model. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity, especially in areas with high levels of salinity. The method developed in this paper can be used for other satellite data, like those provided by Landsat 8, and can be applied in other arid and semi-arid environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil salinity; reflectance spectra; Landsat; PLSR; MARS; Egypt soil salinity; reflectance spectra; Landsat; PLSR; MARS; Egypt
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nawar, S.; Buddenbaum, H.; Hill, J.; Kozak, J. Modeling and Mapping of Soil Salinity with Reflectance Spectroscopy and Landsat Data Using Two Quantitative Methods (PLSR and MARS). Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 10813-10834.

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