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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(10), 9170-9193; doi:10.3390/rs6109170

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Gyres in Oriented Lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska Based on Remotely Sensed Images

1
Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
2
Alaska Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 13 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Changing Northern High Latitude Ecosystems)
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Abstract

The formation of oriented thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska has been the subject of debate for more than half a century. The striking elongation of the lakes perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction has led to the development of a preferred wind-generated gyre hypothesis, while other hypotheses include a combination of sun angle, topographic aspect, and/or antecedent conditions. A spatio-temporal analysis of oriented thermokarst lake gyres with recent (Landsat 8) and historical (Landsat 4, 5, 7 and ASTER) satellite imagery of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska indicates that wind-generated gyres are both frequent and regionally extensive. Gyres are most common in lakes located near the Arctic coast after several days of sustained winds from a single direction, typically the northeast, and decrease in number landward with decreasing wind energy. This analysis indicates that the conditions necessary for the Carson and Hussey (1962) wind-generated gyre for oriented thermokarst lake formation are common temporally and regionally and correspond spatially with the geographic distribution of oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Given an increase in the ice-free season for lakes as well as strengthening of the wind regime, the frequency and distribution of lake gyres may increase. This increase has implications for changes in northern high latitude aquatic ecosystems, particularly if wind-generated gyres promote permafrost degradation and thermokarst lake expansion. View Full-Text
Keywords: oriented lakes; thermokarst lakes; gyres; Arctic; Alaska; remote sensing; satellite image oriented lakes; thermokarst lakes; gyres; Arctic; Alaska; remote sensing; satellite image
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhan, S.; Beck, R.A.; Hinkel, K.M.; Liu, H.; Jones, B.M. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Gyres in Oriented Lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska Based on Remotely Sensed Images. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 9170-9193.

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