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Hub Height Ocean Winds over the North Sea Observed by the NORSEWInD Lidar Array: Measuring Techniques, Quality Control and Data Management
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
GL Garrad Hassan, Brooktorkai 18, D-20457 Hamburg, Germany
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ, UK
Oldbaum Services, Stirling FK9 4NF, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2013; in revised form: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
Abstract: In the North Sea, an array of wind profiling wind lidars were deployed mainly on offshore platforms. The purpose was to observe free stream winds at hub height. Eight lidars were validated prior to offshore deployment with observations from cup anemometers at 60, 80, 100 and 116 m on an onshore met mast situated in flat terrain. The so-called “NORSEWInD standard” for comparing lidar and mast wind data includes the criteria that the slope of the linear regression should lie within 0.98 and 1.01 and the linear correlation coefficient higher than 0.98 for the wind speed range 4–16 m∙s−1. Five lidars performed excellently, two slightly failed the first criterion and one failed both. The lidars were operated offshore from six months to more than two years and observed in total 107 months of 10-min mean wind profile observations. Four lidars were re-evaluated post deployment with excellent results. The flow distortion around platforms was examined using wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics and it was found that at 100 m height wind observations by the lidars were not significantly influenced by flow distortion. Observations of the vertical wind profile shear exponent at hub height are presented.
Keywords: lidar; offshore winds; remote sensing; wind energy; wind resources
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Hasager, C.B.; Stein, D.; Courtney, M.; Peña, A.; Mikkelsen, T.; Stickland, M.; Oldroyd, A. Hub Height Ocean Winds over the North Sea Observed by the NORSEWInD Lidar Array: Measuring Techniques, Quality Control and Data Management. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 4280-4303.
Hasager CB, Stein D, Courtney M, Peña A, Mikkelsen T, Stickland M, Oldroyd A. Hub Height Ocean Winds over the North Sea Observed by the NORSEWInD Lidar Array: Measuring Techniques, Quality Control and Data Management. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(9):4280-4303.
Hasager, Charlotte B.; Stein, Detlef; Courtney, Michael; Peña, Alfredo; Mikkelsen, Torben; Stickland, Matthew; Oldroyd, Andrew. 2013. "Hub Height Ocean Winds over the North Sea Observed by the NORSEWInD Lidar Array: Measuring Techniques, Quality Control and Data Management." Remote Sens. 5, no. 9: 4280-4303.