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Comparison of Typhoon Locations over Ocean Surface Observed by Various Satellite Sensors
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Hangzhou 310012, China
Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Ocean Remote Sensing Institute, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Abstract: In this study, typhoon eyes have been delineated using wavelet analysis from the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of ocean surface roughness and from the warm area at the cloud top in the infrared (IR) images, respectively. Envisat SAR imagery, and multi-functional transport satellite (MTSAT) and Feng Yun (FY)-2 Chinese meteorological satellite IR imagery were used to examine the typhoons in the western North Pacific from 2005 to 2011. Three cases of various typhoons in different years, locations, and conditions have been used to compare the typhoon eyes derived from SAR (on the ocean surface) with IR (at the cloud-top level) images. Furthermore, the best track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) are checked for the calibration. Because of the vertical wind shear, which acts as an upright tilt, the location of the typhoon eye on the ocean surface differs from that at the top of the clouds. Consequently, the large horizontal distance between typhoon eyes on the ocean surface and on the cloud top implies that the associated vertical wind shear profile is considerably more complex than generally expected. This result demonstrates that SAR can be a useful tool for typhoon monitoring study over the ocean surface.
Keywords: typhoon eye; synthetic aperture radar; infrared images; wavelet transform; wind shear
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MDPI and ACS Style
Pan, Y.; Liu, A.K.; He, S.; Yang, J.; He, M.-X. Comparison of Typhoon Locations over Ocean Surface Observed by Various Satellite Sensors. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 3172-3189.
Pan Y, Liu AK, He S, Yang J, He M-X. Comparison of Typhoon Locations over Ocean Surface Observed by Various Satellite Sensors. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(7):3172-3189.
Pan, Yufang; Liu, Antony K.; He, Shuangyan; Yang, Jingsong; He, Ming-Xia. 2013. "Comparison of Typhoon Locations over Ocean Surface Observed by Various Satellite Sensors." Remote Sens. 5, no. 7: 3172-3189.