Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(11), 5424-5448; doi:10.3390/rs5115424
Article

A Practical Approach for Extracting Tree Models in Forest Environments Based on Equirectangular Projections of Terrestrial Laser Scans

1,* , 1
, 1
, 1
, 1
 and 2
Received: 30 August 2013; in revised form: 19 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 24 October 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5581 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Extracting 3D tree models based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds is a challenging task as trees are complex objects. Current TLS devices acquire high-density data that allow a detailed reconstruction of the tree topology. However, in dense forests a fully automatic reconstruction of trees is often limited by occlusion, wind influences and co-registration issues. In this paper, a semi-automatic method for extracting branching and stem structure based on equirectangular projections (range and intensity maps) is presented. The digitization of branches and stems is based on 2D maps, which enables simple navigation and raster processing. The modeling is performed for each viewpoint individually instead of using a registered point cloud. Previously reconstructed 2D-skeletons are transformed between the maps. Therefore, wind influences, orientation imperfections of scans and data gaps can be overcome. The method is applied to a TLS dataset acquired in a forest in Germany. In total 34 scans were carried out within a managed forest to measure approximately 90 spruce trees with minimal occlusions. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the presented approach to extract tree models with a high completeness and correctness and provide an excellent input for further modeling applications.
Keywords: 3D tree model; forest inventory; branching structure; tree topology; cylinder model 3D tree model; forest inventory; branching structure; tree topology; cylinder model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Eysn, L.; Pfeifer, N.; Ressl, C.; Hollaus, M.; Grafl, A.; Morsdorf, F. A Practical Approach for Extracting Tree Models in Forest Environments Based on Equirectangular Projections of Terrestrial Laser Scans. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 5424-5448.

AMA Style

Eysn L, Pfeifer N, Ressl C, Hollaus M, Grafl A, Morsdorf F. A Practical Approach for Extracting Tree Models in Forest Environments Based on Equirectangular Projections of Terrestrial Laser Scans. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(11):5424-5448.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eysn, Lothar; Pfeifer, Norbert; Ressl, Camillo; Hollaus, Markus; Grafl, Andreas; Morsdorf, Felix. 2013. "A Practical Approach for Extracting Tree Models in Forest Environments Based on Equirectangular Projections of Terrestrial Laser Scans." Remote Sens. 5, no. 11: 5424-5448.


Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert