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The Impacts of Rapid Urbanization on the Thermal Environment: A Remote Sensing Study of Guangzhou, South China
School of Geography and Tourism & IREIS, Jiaying University, Meizhou 514015, China
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075, China
Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 May 2012; in revised form: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
Abstract: The effect of urbanization on the urban thermal environment (UTE) has attracted increasing research attention for its significant relationship to local climatic change and habitat comfort. Using quantitative thermal remote sensing and spatial statistics methods, here we analyze four Landsat TM/ETM+ images of Guangzhou in South China acquired respectively on 13 October 1990, 2 January 2000, 23 November 2005, and 2 January 2009, to investigate the spatiotemporal variations in the land surface temperature (LST) over five land use/land cover (LULC) types and over different urban/rural zones. The emphases of this study are placed on the urban heat island (UHI) intensity and the relationships among LST, the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results show that: (1) the UHI effect existed obviously over the period from 1990 to 2009 and high temperature anomalies were closely associated with built-up land and densely populated and heavily industrialized districts; (2) the UHI intensities represented by the mean LST difference between the urban downtown area and the suburban area were on average 0.88, 0.49, 0.90 and 1.16 K on the four dates, at the 99.99% confidence level; and (3) LST is related positively with NDBI and negatively with NDVI. The spatiotemporal variation of UTE of Guangzhou could be attributed to rapid urbanization, especially to the expanding built-up and developing land, declining vegetation coverage, and strengthening of anthropogenic and industrial activities which generate increasing amounts of waste heat. This study provides useful information for understanding the local climatic and environment changes that occur during rapid urbanization.
Keywords: urban heat island; urbanization; NDVI; NDBI; remote sensing; Guangzhou
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Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.; Chen, F.; Ye, H.; Wang, C.; Zhu, C. The Impacts of Rapid Urbanization on the Thermal Environment: A Remote Sensing Study of Guangzhou, South China. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 2033-2056.
Xiong Y, Huang S, Chen F, Ye H, Wang C, Zhu C. The Impacts of Rapid Urbanization on the Thermal Environment: A Remote Sensing Study of Guangzhou, South China. Remote Sensing. 2012; 4(7):2033-2056.
Xiong, Yongzhu; Huang, Shaopeng; Chen, Feng; Ye, Hong; Wang, Cuiping; Zhu, Changbai. 2012. "The Impacts of Rapid Urbanization on the Thermal Environment: A Remote Sensing Study of Guangzhou, South China." Remote Sens. 4, no. 7: 2033-2056.