Remote Sens. 2012, 4(4), 950-974; doi:10.3390/rs4040950
Article

An International Comparison of Individual Tree Detection and Extraction Using Airborne Laser Scanning

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Received: 10 February 2012; in revised form: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 30 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Scanning in Forests)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The objective of the “Tree Extraction” project organized by EuroSDR (European Spatial data Research) and ISPRS (International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing) was to evaluate the quality, accuracy, and feasibility of automatic tree extraction methods, mainly based on laser scanner data. In the final report of the project, Kaartinen and Hyyppä (2008) reported a high variation in the quality of the published methods under boreal forest conditions and with varying laser point densities. This paper summarizes the findings beyond the final report after analyzing the results obtained in different tree height classes. Omission/Commission statistics as well as neighborhood relations are taken into account. Additionally, four automatic tree detection and extraction techniques were added to the test. Several methods in this experiment were superior to manual processing in the dominant, co-dominant and suppressed tree storeys. In general, as expected, the taller the tree, the better the location accuracy. The accuracy of tree height, after removing gross errors, was better than 0.5 m in all tree height classes with the best methods investigated in this experiment. For forest inventory, minimum curvature-based tree detection accompanied by point cloud-based cluster detection for suppressed trees is a solution that deserves attention in the future.
Keywords: tree detection; tree extraction; airborne laser scanning; EuroSDR; ISPRS; individual tree inventory; 3D; crown delineation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaartinen, H.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Vastaranta, M.; Hyyppä, H.; Kukko, A.; Holopainen, M.; Heipke, C.; Hirschmugl, M.; Morsdorf, F.; Næsset, E.; Pitkänen, J.; Popescu, S.; Solberg, S.; Wolf, B.M.; Wu, J.-C. An International Comparison of Individual Tree Detection and Extraction Using Airborne Laser Scanning. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 950-974.

AMA Style

Kaartinen H, Hyyppä J, Yu X, Vastaranta M, Hyyppä H, Kukko A, Holopainen M, Heipke C, Hirschmugl M, Morsdorf F, Næsset E, Pitkänen J, Popescu S, Solberg S, Wolf BM, Wu J-C. An International Comparison of Individual Tree Detection and Extraction Using Airborne Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing. 2012; 4(4):950-974.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Vastaranta, Mikko; Hyyppä, Hannu; Kukko, Antero; Holopainen, Markus; Heipke, Christian; Hirschmugl, Manuela; Morsdorf, Felix; Næsset, Erik; Pitkänen, Juho; Popescu, Sorin; Solberg, Svein; Wolf, Bernd Michael; Wu, Jee-Cheng. 2012. "An International Comparison of Individual Tree Detection and Extraction Using Airborne Laser Scanning." Remote Sens. 4, no. 4: 950-974.

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