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High Frequency (HF) Radar Detection of the Weak 2012 Indonesian Tsunamis
Codar Ocean Sensors, 125 La Sandra Way, Portola Valley, CA 94028, USA
Codar Ocean Sensors, 1914 Plymouth St., Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Gedung Mina Bahari III Lt. 9 Jln. Medan Merdeka Timur No. 16, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia
Codar Ocean Sensors, 5 Sunset Trail, Sunset Valley, TX 78745, USA
National Institute of Ocean Technology, Velachery-Tambaram Main Road, Narayanapuram, Pallikaranai, Chennai 600 100, Tamil Nadu, India
Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, “Ocean Valley”, Paragathi Nagar (BO), Nizampet (SO), Hyderabad 500090, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2012; in revised form: 23 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Abstract: We report here on the observation and offline detection of the weak tsunamis generated by earthquakes near Indonesia on 11 April 2012 using radar systems and tide gauges on the coasts of Sumatra and the Andaman Islands. This work extends the previous observations of the much stronger 2011 Japan tsunami. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends primarily on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. The weak Indonesia tsunamis were detected successfully in spite of the narrow shallow-water shelf offshore from the radar systems. Larger tsunamis could obviously be detected further from the coast. This paper provides further confirmation that radar is an important tool to aid in tsunami observation and warning.
Keywords: radar oceanography; remote sensing; current velocity measurement; tsunami detection
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lipa, B.; Barrick, D.; Diposaptono, S.; Isaacson, J.; Jena, B.K.; Nyden, B.; Rajesh, K.; Kumar, T.S. High Frequency (HF) Radar Detection of the Weak 2012 Indonesian Tsunamis. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 2944-2956.
Lipa B, Barrick D, Diposaptono S, Isaacson J, Jena BK, Nyden B, Rajesh K, Kumar TS. High Frequency (HF) Radar Detection of the Weak 2012 Indonesian Tsunamis. Remote Sensing. 2012; 4(10):2944-2956.
Lipa, Belinda; Barrick, Donald; Diposaptono, Subandono; Isaacson, James; Jena, Basanta Kumar; Nyden, Bruce; Rajesh, Kuppili; Kumar, T. Srinivasa. 2012. "High Frequency (HF) Radar Detection of the Weak 2012 Indonesian Tsunamis." Remote Sens. 4, no. 10: 2944-2956.