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Remote Sens. 2011, 3(9), 1914-1942; doi:10.3390/rs3091914

AMARTIS v2: 3D Radiative Transfer Code in the [0.4; 2.5 µm] Spectral Domain Dedicated to Urban Areas

Onera, The French Aerospace Lab, 2 avenue Edouard Belin, BP 4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
ISAE, Université de Toulouse, 10 avenue Edouard Belin, BP 54032, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
CNES, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2011 / Revised: 23 August 2011 / Accepted: 23 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperspectral Remote Sensing)


The availability of new very high spatial resolution sensors has for the past few years allowed a precise description of urban areas, and thus the settlement of specific ground or atmosphere characterization methods. However, in order to develop such techniques, a radiative transfer tool dedicated to such an area is necessary. AMARTIS v2 is a new radiative transfer code derived from the radiative transfer code AMARTIS specifically dedicated to urban areas. It allows to simulate airborne and spaceborne multiangular observations of 3D scenes in the [0.4; 2.5µm] domain with the ground’s geometry, urban materials optical properties, atmospheric modeling and sensor characteristics entirely defined by the user. After a general presentation of AMARTIS v2 and a description of the performed calculations, results of radiometric intercomparisons with other radiative transfer codes are presented and the new offered potentials are illustrated with four realistic examples, representative of current issues in urban areas remote sensing.
Keywords: AMARTIS; radiative transfer; urban area; remote sensing; 3D; reflective domain AMARTIS; radiative transfer; urban area; remote sensing; 3D; reflective domain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Thomas, C.; Doz, S.; Briottet, X.; Lachérade, S. AMARTIS v2: 3D Radiative Transfer Code in the [0.4; 2.5 µm] Spectral Domain Dedicated to Urban Areas. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 1914-1942.

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