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LIDAR and SODAR Measurements of Wind Speed and Direction in Upland Terrain for Wind Energy Purposes
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2011; in revised form: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
Abstract: Detailed knowledge of the wind resource is necessary in the developmental and operational stages of a wind farm site. As wind turbines continue to grow in size, masts for mounting cup anemometers—the accepted standard for resource assessment—have necessarily become much taller, and much more expensive. This limitation has driven the commercialization of two remote sensing (RS) tools for the wind energy industry: The LIDAR and the SODAR, Doppler effect instruments using light and sound, respectively. They are ground-based and can work over hundreds of meters, sufficient for the tallest turbines in, or planned for, production. This study compares wind measurements from two commercial RS instruments against an instrumented mast, in upland (semi-complex) terrain typical of where many wind farms are now being installed worldwide. With appropriate filtering, regression analyses suggest a good correlation between the RS instruments and mast instruments: The RS instruments generally recorded lower wind speeds than the cup anemometers, with the LIDAR more accurate and the SODAR more precise.
Keywords: wind speed; wind energy; remote sensing; upland terrain
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lang, S.; McKeogh, E. LIDAR and SODAR Measurements of Wind Speed and Direction in Upland Terrain for Wind Energy Purposes. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 1871-1901.
Lang S, McKeogh E. LIDAR and SODAR Measurements of Wind Speed and Direction in Upland Terrain for Wind Energy Purposes. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(9):1871-1901.
Lang, Steven; McKeogh, Eamon. 2011. "LIDAR and SODAR Measurements of Wind Speed and Direction in Upland Terrain for Wind Energy Purposes." Remote Sens. 3, no. 9: 1871-1901.