Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
3-Dimensional Building Details from Aerial Photography for Internet Maps
Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, 8010 Graz, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2011; in revised form: 1 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 February 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Abstract: This paper introduces the automated characterization of real estate (real property) for Internet mapping. It proposes a processing framework to achieve this task from vertical aerial photography and associated property information. A demonstration of the feasibility of an automated solution builds on test data from the Austrian City of Graz. Information is extracted from vertical aerial photography and various data products derived from that photography in the form of a true orthophoto, a dense digital surface model and digital terrain model, and a classification of land cover. Maps of cadastral property boundaries aid in defining real properties. Our goal is to develop a table for each property with descriptive numbers about the buildings, their dimensions, number of floors, number of windows, roof shapes, impervious surfaces, garages, sheds, vegetation, presence of a basement floor, and other descriptors of interest for each and every property of a city. From aerial sources, at a pixel size of 10 cm, we show that we have obtained positional accuracies in the range of a single pixel, an accuracy of areas in the 10% range, floor counts at an accuracy of 93% and window counts at 86% accuracy. We also introduce 3D point clouds of facades and their creation from vertical aerial photography, and how these point clouds can support the definition of complex facades.
Keywords: aerial images; 3D-modeling of buildings; semantic image interpretation; counting building floors; window detection; real estate valuation; facade point clouds
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Meixner, P.; Leberl, F. 3-Dimensional Building Details from Aerial Photography for Internet Maps. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 721-751.
Meixner P, Leberl F. 3-Dimensional Building Details from Aerial Photography for Internet Maps. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(4):721-751.
Meixner, Philipp; Leberl, Franz. 2011. "3-Dimensional Building Details from Aerial Photography for Internet Maps." Remote Sens. 3, no. 4: 721-751.