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Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
CIRES, University of Colorado, 216 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Atmospheric Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2010; in revised form: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 5 November 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
Abstract: Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT) channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics. The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.
Keywords: global and hemispheric annual temperature cycles; global and hemispheric annual maximum and minimum temperatures
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Herman, B.M.; Brunke, M.A.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Christy, J.R.; McNider, R.T. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle. Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 2561-2570.
Herman BM, Brunke MA, Pielke RA, Sr, Christy JR, McNider RT. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle. Remote Sensing. 2010; 2(11):2561-2570.
Herman, Benjamin M.; Brunke, Michael A.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; Christy, John R.; McNider, Richard T. 2010. "Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle." Remote Sens. 2, no. 11: 2561-2570.