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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020348

Upper Ocean Response to Typhoon Kalmaegi and Sarika in the South China Sea from Multiple-Satellite Observations and Numerical Simulations

1
School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada
3
GST at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/NESDIS, College Park, MD 20740-3818, USA
4
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Hangzhou 310012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

We investigated ocean surface and subsurface physical responses to Typhoons Kalmaegi and Sarika in the South China Sea, utilizing synergistic multiple-satellite observations, in situ measurements, and numerical simulations. We found significant typhoon-induced sea surface cooling using satellite sea surface temperature (SST) observations and numerical model simulations. This cooling was mainly caused by vertical mixing and upwelling. The maximum amplitudes were 6 °C and 4.2 °C for Typhoons Kalmaegi and Sarika, respectively. For Typhoon Sarika, Argo temperature profile measurements showed that temperature response beneath the surface showed a three-layer vertical structure (decreasing-increasing-decreasing). Satellite salinity observations showed that the maximum increase of sea surface salinity (SSS) was 2.2 psu on the right side of Typhoon Sarika’s track, and the maximum decrease of SSS was 1.4 psu on the left. This SSS seesaw response phenomenon is related to the asymmetrical rainfall on both sides of the typhoon track. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers measurements and numerical simulations both showed that subsurface current velocities rapidly increased as the typhoon passed, with peak increases of up to 1.19 m/s and 1.49 m/s. Typhoon-generated SST cooling and current velocity increases both exhibited a rightward bias associated with a coupling between typhoon wind-stress and mixed layer velocity. View Full-Text
Keywords: upper ocean response; typhoon; satellite observations; numerical simulations upper ocean response; typhoon; satellite observations; numerical simulations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yue, X.; Zhang, B.; Liu, G.; Li, X.; Zhang, H.; He, Y. Upper Ocean Response to Typhoon Kalmaegi and Sarika in the South China Sea from Multiple-Satellite Observations and Numerical Simulations. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 348.

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