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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010151

New Insights for Detecting and Deriving Thermal Properties of Lava Flow Using Infrared Satellite during 2014–2015 Effusive Eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland

1
Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
2
Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iceland, Hjardarhagi 2-7, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland
3
Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
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Abstract

A new lava field was formed at Holuhraun in the Icelandic Highlands, north of Vatnajökull glacier, in 2014–2015. It was the largest effusive eruption in Iceland for 230 years, with an estimated lava bulk volume of ~1.44 km3 covering an area of ~84 km2. Satellite-based remote sensing is commonly used as preliminary assessment of large scale eruptions since it is relatively efficient for collecting and processing the data. Landsat-8 infrared datasets were used in this study, and we used dual-band technique to determine the subpixel temperature (Th) of the lava. We developed a new spectral index called the thermal eruption index (TEI) based on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands allowing us to differentiate thermal domain within the lava flow field. Lava surface roughness effects are accounted by using the Hurst coefficient (H) for deriving the radiant flux ( Φ rad ) and the crust thickness (Δh). Here, we compare the results derived from satellite images with field measurements. The result from 2 December 2014 shows that a temperature estimate (1096 °C; occupying area of 3.05 m2) from a lava breakout has a close correspondence with a thermal camera measurement (1047 °C; occupying area of 4.52 m2). We also found that the crust thickness estimate in the lava channel during 6 September 2014 (~3.4–7.7 m) compares closely with the lava height measurement from the field (~2.6–6.6 m); meanwhile, the total radiant flux peak is underestimated (~8 GW) compared to other studies (~25 GW), although the trend shows good agreement with both field observation and other studies. This study provides new insights for monitoring future effusive eruption using infrared satellite images. View Full-Text
Keywords: effusive eruption; Landsat-8; TEI; SWIR; TIR; Hurst coefficient; dual-band; radiant flux; crust thickness effusive eruption; Landsat-8; TEI; SWIR; TIR; Hurst coefficient; dual-band; radiant flux; crust thickness
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Aufaristama, M.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Jonsdottir, I.; Ulfarsson, M.O.; Thordarson, T. New Insights for Detecting and Deriving Thermal Properties of Lava Flow Using Infrared Satellite during 2014–2015 Effusive Eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 151.

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