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Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1123; doi:10.3390/su9071123

Energy Efficiency Gain of Cellular Base Stations with Large-Scale Antenna Systems for Green Information and Communication Technology

School of Intelligent Mechatronics Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Abstract

Due to the ever-increasing data demand of end users, the number of information and communication technology (ICT)-related devices and equipment continues to increase. This induces large amounts of heat emissions, which can cause serious environmental pollution. In recent times, signal transmission systems such as cellular base stations (BSs) have been constructed everywhere and these emit a large carbon footprint. Large-scale antenna systems (LSASs) that use a large amount of transmission antennas to serve a limited number of users can increase energy efficiency (EE) of BSs based on the beamforming effect, and thus can be a promising candidate to reduce the carbon footprint of the ICT field. In this paper, we discuss the necessary schemes to realize LSASs and show the expected EE gain of the LSAS with enough practicality. There are many obstacles to realize the high EE LSAS, and even though several studies have shown separate schemes to increase the EE and/or throughput (TP) of LSASs, few have shown combinations of schemes, and presented how much EE gain can be achieved by the schemes in the overall system. Based on the analysis in this paper, we believe more detailed work for the realization of high energy efficient BSs with LSASs is possible because this paper shows the necessary schemes and the maximum achievable energy efficiency gain as a reference. Extensive analysis and simulation results show that with proper implementation of the power amplifier/RF module and a robust channel estimation scheme, LSASs with 600 transmitter (TX) antennas can achieve 99.4 times more EE gain compared to the current systems, thereby resulting in significant reduction of carbon footprints. View Full-Text
Keywords: green information and communication technology; energy efficiency; large-scale antenna systems; cellular base station green information and communication technology; energy efficiency; large-scale antenna systems; cellular base station
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Lee, B.M. Energy Efficiency Gain of Cellular Base Stations with Large-Scale Antenna Systems for Green Information and Communication Technology. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1123.

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