Next Article in Journal
Impact of Window Films on the Overall Energy Consumption of Existing UK Hotel Buildings
Previous Article in Journal
Relationships between Soil Crust Development and Soil Properties in the Desert Region of North China
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 724; doi:10.3390/su9050724

Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

1
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
2
Ministry of Education of Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology at Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
3
Department of Earth Sciences, the University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
4
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, Colorado Mesa University, Grand Junction, CO 81501, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Audrey L. Mayer
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [11126 KB, uploaded 2 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC) alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR) and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR), two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW), Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU) transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%), 122.70 km2 (3.87%), and 195.40 km2 (6.16%) of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed. View Full-Text
Keywords: land-cover and land-use change; landscape pattern; landscape index; remote sensing land-cover and land-use change; landscape pattern; landscape index; remote sensing
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, F.; Kung, H.-T.; Johnson, V.C. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China. Sustainability 2017, 9, 724.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top