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Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 194; doi:10.3390/su9020194

GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda

1
Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Department of Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christian Zurbrügg
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
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Abstract

The majority of residents in low- and middle-income countries are served by onsite sanitation. Equitable access to sanitation, including emptying, collection, and transport services for the accumulation of faecal sludge remains a major challenge. Comprehensive information on service coverage by mechanical faecal sludge emptying service providers is lacking. The purpose of this study is to analyse the spatial distribution of service coverage and identify areas without faecal sludge emptying services in Kampala, Uganda. The study uses GIS (geographic information systems) as a tool to analyse real-time data of service providers based on GPS (global positioning system) units that were installed in a representative number of trucks. Of the total recorded 5653 emptying events, 27% were located outside Kampala city boundaries. Of those within Kampala city boundaries, 37% were classified as non-household customers. Areas without service provision accounted for 13% of the total area. Service provision normalised by population density revealed much greater service provision in medium- and high-income areas than low- and very low-income areas. The employed method provides a powerful tool to optimise faecal sludge management on a city-wide scale by increasing sustainability of the planning and decision-making process, increasing access to service provision and reducing faecal sludge transport times and costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: safely managed sanitation; information and communications technology; collection and transport; service coverage; faecal sludge management; onsite sanitation; Sub-Saharan Africa safely managed sanitation; information and communications technology; collection and transport; service coverage; faecal sludge management; onsite sanitation; Sub-Saharan Africa
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schoebitz, L.; Bischoff, F.; Lohri, C.R.; Niwagaba, C.B.; Siber, R.; Strande, L. GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda. Sustainability 2017, 9, 194.

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