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Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2290; doi:10.3390/su9122290

Classification of the Relationship between Household Welfare and Ecosystem Reliance in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

1
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing 100048, China
4
School of Economics and Finance, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract

Household welfare is inseparable from the environment because of its dependence on ecosystems and their services. However, linking household welfare and ecosystems in order to inform differentiated household livelihood development in spatially heterogeneous regions is still a great challenge. Based on a field survey of 1754 households, we grouped the relationships between household welfare (defined by total income) and ecosystem reliance (expressed by an index of dependence on ecosystem services) in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water for domestic use in Beijing, China. The relationships can be grouped into four types: high welfare and high dependency; low welfare and low dependency; high welfare and low dependence; and low welfare and high dependency. Family structure, households’ education and skill level, and the proximity to Beijing have significant impacts on household welfare, while the quantity of natural capital and eco-compensation fund significantly contribute to the ecosystem dependence. Maintaining suitable family size and age structure, improving education and skill levels, and strengthening payment for ecosystem services within low welfare households would be effective approaches to their welfare improvement. The above classification can help design tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household subgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: household welfare; household livelihood; ecosystem services; sustainable development; China household welfare; household livelihood; ecosystem services; sustainable development; China
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Wang, F.; Zheng, H.; Wang, X.; Peng, W.; Ma, D.; Li, C. Classification of the Relationship between Household Welfare and Ecosystem Reliance in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2290.

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