Next Article in Journal
Coordination Contracts in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain with a Risk-Averse Retailer
Previous Article in Journal
Stakeholder Orientation in Cruise Lines’ Mission Statements
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2153; doi:10.3390/su9112153

Stability of Deep Underground Openings through Large Fault Zones in Argillaceous Rock

1
Key Laboratory of Deep Coal Resource Mining, Ministry of Education of China, School of Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
2
Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
3
School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017

Abstract

The stability of underground openings is pivotal to sustainable safe mining in underground coal mines. To determine the stability and tunneling safety issues in 800-m-deep underground openings through large fault zones in argillaceous rocks in the Guqiao Coal Mine in East China, the pilot industrial test, laboratory experimentation, and field measurements were used to analyze the large deformations and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock, the influence factors of safe excavation and stability of underground openings, and to study the stability control countermeasures. The main factors influencing the stability and tunneling safety include large fault zones, high in situ stress, poor mechanical properties and engineering performance of the argillaceous rock mass, groundwater inrush and gas outburst. According to the field study, the anchor-ability of cables and the groutability of cement-matrix materials in the argillaceous rock in the large fault zones were extremely poor, and deformations and failure of the surrounding rock were characterized by dramatic initial deformation, high long-term creep rate, obviously asymmetric deformations and failure, rebound of roof displacements, overall loosened deformations of deep surrounding rock on a large scale, and high sensitivity to engineering disturbance and water immersion. Various geo-hazards occurred during the pilot excavation, including roof collapse, groundwater inrush, and debris flow. Control techniques are proposed and should be adopted to ensure tunneling safety and to control the stability of deep underground openings through large fault zones, including regional strata reinforcement technique such as ground surface pre-grouting, primary enhanced control measures, floor grouting reinforcement technique, and secondary enclosed support measures for long-term stability, which are critical for ensuring the sustainable development of the coal mine. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep underground opening; argillaceous rock; fault zones; coal mine; excavation; deformation; grouting; stability deep underground opening; argillaceous rock; fault zones; coal mine; excavation; deformation; grouting; stability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Qian, D.; Zhang, N.; Pan, D.; Xie, Z.; Shimada, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, N. Stability of Deep Underground Openings through Large Fault Zones in Argillaceous Rock. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2153.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top