Next Article in Journal
The Influences of Production Factors with Profit on Agricultural Heritage Systems: A Case Study of the Rice-Fish System
Previous Article in Journal
Synchro-Modality and Slow Steaming: New Business Perspectives in Freight Transportation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Numerical Simulation of a Dual-Chamber Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1844; doi:10.3390/su9101844

Voltage Impact of a Wave Energy Converter on an Unbalanced Distribution Grid and Corrective Actions

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yucheng Liu
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Energy Technologies: A Sustainable Energy Source)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2211 KB, uploaded 13 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Renewable energy is steadily increasing its penetration level in electric power systems. Wind and solar energy have reached a high degree of maturity, and their impacts on the grid are well known. However, this is not the case for emerging sources like wave energy. This work explores the impact of the fluctuating power injected by a wave energy converter on the distribution grid voltage and proposes a strategy for mitigating the induced voltage fluctuations. The paper describes the mechanics of how a fluctuating active power injection leads to grid voltage fluctuations and presents an unbalanced three-phase power flow tool that allows one to quantitatively analyze the voltage evolution at every phase and bus of a distribution grid driven by this power injection. The paper also proposes a corrective action for mitigating the voltage fluctuations that makes use of the hardware resources already available in the wave energy converter, by means of a control strategy on the reactive capability of the grid-side inverter. The use of a STATCOM as additional reactive compensation equipment is also explored. The effectiveness of the proposal is assessed in the IEEE 13-bus test feeder showing that, in some cases, the wave energy converter by itself is able to mitigate the voltage fluctuations that it causes. If not, a STATCOM can provide the extra reactive capability needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: distribution grid; unbalanced load flow; voltage fluctuation; wave energy distribution grid; unbalanced load flow; voltage fluctuation; wave energy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mendonça, H.; de Castro, R.M.; Martínez, S.; Montalbán, D. Voltage Impact of a Wave Energy Converter on an Unbalanced Distribution Grid and Corrective Actions. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1844.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top