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Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 857; doi:10.3390/su8090857

The Multilevel Index Decomposition of Energy-Related Carbon Emission and Its Decoupling with Economic Growth in USA

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Urumqi 830011, China
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Department of Economics and Management, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044000, China
The Research Centre on the Development of Enterprises in Xinjiang, Xinjiang University of Finance & Economics, Urumqi 830011, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Kusiak
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1495 KB, uploaded 31 August 2016]   |  


The United States of America is not only an important energy consuming country, but also in the dominant position of energy for many years. As one of the two largest emitters, the US has always been trying to register a decline in energy-related CO2. In order to make a further analysis of the phenomenon, we choose a new decoupling analysis with the multilevel logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. This study examined the contribution of factors influencing energy-related carbon emissions in the United States of America during 1990–2014, quantitatively analyzed decoupling indicators of economic development and environmental situations. As is indicated in the results, economy development and activities have a significant effect in increasing carbon emission, however, measures of energy optimization such as the improvement of energy efficiency has played a crucial role in inhibiting the carbon dioxide emission. Furthermore, as is indicated in decoupling relationship, “relative decoupling” and “no decoupling” are the main states during the examined period. In order to better investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between total carbon dioxide emissions of each effect and the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth, on the basis of a static decomposition analysis, we applied a dynamic analysis method-cointegration test. At last, recommendations and improvement measures aiming at the related issues were put forward. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2 emissions; multilevel LMDI analysis; decoupling index; The United States of America CO2 emissions; multilevel LMDI analysis; decoupling index; The United States of America

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jiang, X.-T.; Dong, J.-F.; Wang, X.-M.; Li, R.-R. The Multilevel Index Decomposition of Energy-Related Carbon Emission and Its Decoupling with Economic Growth in USA. Sustainability 2016, 8, 857.

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