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Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 835; doi:10.3390/su8090835

Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia

Burung Indonesia (BirdLife Affiliate), Jl. Dadali 32, PO. Box 310/Boo, Bogor 16161, West Java, Indonesia
Department of Food and Resource Economics, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 25, Frederiksberg C 1958, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roberto Roson and S. Amer Ahmed
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Environmental Resources and Economic Welfare)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1982 KB, uploaded 24 August 2016]   |  


Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest reliance; rural income; ethnicity; indigenous; immigrant; frontier; forest restoration forest reliance; rural income; ethnicity; indigenous; immigrant; frontier; forest restoration

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Widianingsih, N.N.; Theilade, I.; Pouliot, M. Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia. Sustainability 2016, 8, 835.

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