Next Article in Journal
Do Urban Rail Transit Facilities Affect Housing Prices? Evidence from China
Previous Article in Journal
Capturing the Stakeholders’ View in Sustainability Reporting: A Novel Approach
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 375; doi:10.3390/su8040375

The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

1
Laboratoire du Management d’Innovation et du Développement Durable, Université de Sousse, Sousse 4023, Tunisia
2
College of Administrative Sciences, Najran University, Najran 1988, Saudi Arabia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1168 KB, uploaded 16 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy intensity; urbanization; autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) testing approach; breakpoint unit root tests; Toda Yamamoto (1995) non-Granger causality test; Saudi Arabia energy intensity; urbanization; autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) testing approach; breakpoint unit root tests; Toda Yamamoto (1995) non-Granger causality test; Saudi Arabia
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Belloumi, M.; Alshehry, A.S. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2016, 8, 375.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top