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Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 257; doi:10.3390/su8030257

Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA

Department of Urban Design and Planning, Hongik University, Seoul 04066, Korea
Department of City and Regional Planning, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1850, USA
Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2000, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jack Barkenbus and Marc A. Rosen
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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This paper explores whether and to what extent wind discourages sustainable transportation mode choice, which includes riding public transportation, bicycling, and walking. A six month-long field study was carried out at four locations in San Francisco, a city that has been promoting sustainable transportation mode choice but that experiences high wind levels. It involved surveying pedestrians and on-site recording of microclimate data using various instruments. The survey adopted a mixed-method approach to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Statistical analyses using Kruskal Wallis tests and ordinal logistic regression models identified the significant effect of wind speed on San Francisco’s residents in estimating their discouragement for waiting at transit stop without shelter, bicycling, and walking. Qualitative data revealed a deeper understanding of how wind influences their sustainable transportation mode choice. This research argues for the need to adopt climate-based efforts in urban planning and policy and sheds light on the climate resilience of cities View Full-Text
Keywords: wind; sustainable transportation mode; mixed-method; San Francisco wind; sustainable transportation mode; mixed-method; San Francisco

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, H.; Macdonald, E. Does Wind Discourage Sustainable Transportation Mode Choice? Findings from San Francisco, California, USA. Sustainability 2016, 8, 257.

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