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Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 242; doi:10.3390/su8030242

The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model

1
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081HV, The Netherlands
2
NZ Centre for Sustainable Cities, University of Otago, Wellington 6242, New Zealand
3
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 5 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [235 KB, uploaded 5 March 2016]

Abstract

Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work) can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE) model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: active commuting; transport policy; forecasting; built environment; physical activity active commuting; transport policy; forecasting; built environment; physical activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mackenbach, J.D.; Randal, E.; Zhao, P.; Howden-Chapman, P. The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model. Sustainability 2016, 8, 242.

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