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Sustainability 2016, 8(2), 192; doi:10.3390/su8020192

Development of a Model for a Cordon Pricing Scheme Considering Environmental Equity: A Case Study of Tehran

School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 1684613114, Iran
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Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 22 November 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
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Abstract

Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. Despite the positive effects of congestion pricing, its implementation has faced problems. This paper investigates the issue of environmental equity in cordon pricing and a park-and-ride scheme. Although pollution decreases inside the cordon by implementation of cordon pricing, air pollutants emission may increase in some links and in the whole network. Therefore, an increase in air emissions in the network means more emission outside the cordon. In fact, due to the implementation of this policy, air pollutants emission may transfer from inside to outside the cordon, creating a type of environmental inequity. To reduce this inequity, a bi-level optimization model with an equity constraint is developed. The proposed solution algorithm based on the second version of the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) is applied to the city network in Tehran. The results revealed that it seems reasonable to consider environmental equity as an objective function in cordon pricing. In addition, we can create a sustainable situation for the transportation system by improving environmental inequity with a relatively low reduction in social welfare. Moreover, there are environmental inequity impacts in real networks, which should be considered in the cordon pricing scheme. View Full-Text
Keywords: cordon pricing; environmental equity; park-and-ride; multi-modal network; multi-objective bi-level optimization; SPEA2 cordon pricing; environmental equity; park-and-ride; multi-modal network; multi-objective bi-level optimization; SPEA2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Afandizadeh, S.; Abdolmanafi, S.E. Development of a Model for a Cordon Pricing Scheme Considering Environmental Equity: A Case Study of Tehran. Sustainability 2016, 8, 192.

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