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Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1283; doi:10.3390/su8121283

Land-Based Mitigation Strategies under the Mid-Term Carbon Reduction Targets in Indonesia

1
Center for Social and Environmental Systems research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
2
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg A-2361, Austria
3
Center for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management in Southeast Asia Pacific (CCROM-SEAP), Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16143, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract

We investigated the key mitigation options for achieving the mid-term target for carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. A computable general equilibrium model coupled with a land-based mitigation technology model was used to evaluate specific mitigation options within the whole economic framework. The results revealed three primary findings: (1) If no climate policy were implemented, Indonesia’s total greenhouse gas emissions would reach 3.0 GtCO2eq by 2030; (2) To reduce carbon emissions to meet the latest Intended Nationally-Determined Contributions (INDC) target, ~58% of total reductions should come from the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors by implementing forest protection, afforestation and plantation efforts; (3) A higher carbon price in 2020 suggests that meeting the 2020 target would be economically challenging, whereas the INDC target for 2030 would be more economically realistic in Indonesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; land use change; agriculture; mitigation options; INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions); Indonesia; computable general equilibrium model; technology model climate change; land use change; agriculture; mitigation options; INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions); Indonesia; computable general equilibrium model; technology model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasegawa, T.; Fujimori, S.; Boer, R.; Immanuel, G.S.; Masui, T. Land-Based Mitigation Strategies under the Mid-Term Carbon Reduction Targets in Indonesia. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1283.

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