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Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 993; doi:10.3390/su8100993

The Effect of Water Injection on the Control of In-Cylinder Pressure and Enhanced Power Output in a Four-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1
Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Automotive Components, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Automotive Components Technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, HoChiMinh University of Transport, HoChiMinh City 760000, Vietnam
4
Mechanical Engineering Department, Ho Polytechnic, P.O. Box HP 217, Ho 036, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 24 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)

Abstract

This paper presents the results for liquid water injection (WI) into a cylinder during the compression and expansion strokes of an internal combustion engine (ICE), with the aim of achieving an optimal in-cylinder pressure and improving power output using CFD simulation. Employing WI during the compression stroke at 80° of crank angle (CA) before top dead centre (bTDC) resulted in the reduction of compression work due to a reduction in peak compression pressure by a margin of about 2%. The decreased peak compression pressure also yielded the benefit of a decrease in NOx emission by a margin of 34% as well as the prevention of detonation. Using WI during the expansion stroke (after top dead centre–aTDC) revealed two stages of the in-cylinder pressure: the first stage involved a decrease in pressure by heat absorption, and the second stage involved an increase in the pressure as a result of an increase in the steam volume via expansion. For the case of water addition (WA 3.0%) and a water temperature of 100 °C, the percentage decrease of in-cylinder pressure was 2.7% during the first stage and a 2.5% pressure increase during the second stage. Water injection helped in reducing the energy losses resulting from the transfer of heat to the walls and exhaust gases. At 180° CA aTDC, the exhaust gas temperature decreased by 42 K, 89 K, and 136 K for WA 1.0, WA 2.0, and WA 3.0, respectively. Increasing the WI temperature to 200 °C resulted in a decrease of the in-cylinder pressure by 1.0% during the first stage, with an increase of approximately 4.0% in the second stage. The use of WI in both compression and expansion strokes resulted in a maximum increase of in-cylinder pressure of about 7%, demonstrating the potential of higher power output. View Full-Text
Keywords: CFD simulation; engine efficiency; heat losses; heat transfer; water addition; water injection CFD simulation; engine efficiency; heat losses; heat transfer; water addition; water injection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wei, M.; Nguyen, T.S.; Turkson, R.F.; Guo, G.; Liu, J. The Effect of Water Injection on the Control of In-Cylinder Pressure and Enhanced Power Output in a Four-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine. Sustainability 2016, 8, 993.

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