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Sustainability 2015, 7(9), 12856-12869; doi:10.3390/su70912856

Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, via S. Costanzo 4, 06126 Perugia, Italy
2
CIRIAF, Interuniversity Research Centre on Pollution and Environment "Mauro Felli", via G. Duranti 67, 06125 Perugia, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Perugia, via A. Fabretti 48, 06123 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Asdrubali, Pietro Buzzini and Marc A. Rosen
Received: 20 May 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
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Abstract

The effects of increasing concentrations of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essentials oil (EO) on ruminal gas emissions were tested in vitro using 50 mL serum bottles. Each bottle contained a 200 mg substrate (alfalfa hay and corn meal 1:1) and a 20 mL solution composed of a buffered medium and rumen fluid (1:2). The percentage of ruminal fermentation products was quantified by an infrared analyzer. The reduction of total gas production was 6% and 9% respectively when using the 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO measurements. The reduction of methane production was 55%, 72% and 71% respectively with regard to the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO doses, while rosemary EO (2.0 g/L) reduced the methane production by 9%. The production of ammonia was significantly reduced (59%–78%) by all treatments with the exception of rosemary EO at the lowest dose. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability was reduced by most of the treatments (respectively 4%–9% and 8%–24%). The total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was markedly decreased by oregano EO and was not affected by rosemary EO. Both EOs mitigated rumen fermentations, but oregano EO gave rise to the highest reduction in methane and ammonia production. However, further research is needed to evaluate the use of these essential oils as dietary supplements by taking into account the negative effects on feed degradability. View Full-Text
Keywords: methane; ammonia; essential oil; oregano; rosemary; rumen; in vitro fermentation methane; ammonia; essential oil; oregano; rosemary; rumen; in vitro fermentation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cobellis, G.; Petrozzi, A.; Forte, C.; Acuti, G.; Orrù, M.; Marcotullio, M.C.; Aquino, A.; Nicolini, A.; Mazza, V.; Trabalza-Marinucci, M. Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems. Sustainability 2015, 7, 12856-12869.

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