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Sustainability 2015, 7(9), 12644-12671; doi:10.3390/su70912644

Moving towards Sustainability: Road Grades and On-Road Emissions of Heavy-Duty Vehicles—A Case Study

1,2
,
3
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
Transportation Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 13 June 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 15 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1332 KB, uploaded 15 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

On-road vehicle emissions are one of the major sources of transport emissions. As a key design factor, road grades (or road slopes) have significant effects on on-road vehicle emissions, particularly on Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs). However, the research into the relationship between road grades and on-road vehicle emissions is very rare in China. Taking a road network in Taiyuan, China, as a study area, this paper explored the influences of road grades on carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions of HDVs. Combining emissions data collected by Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) with Vehicle Specific Power (VSP), we developed an emission rate model of HDVs. Then, we integrated it with the traffic simulation model VISSIM to attain the emissions of HDVs on nine scenarios differentiated by road grades. The results showed that the three emissions are found to be highly correlated to road grades, among which the CO emissions are most sensitive to the change of road grades and the HC emissions least. Compared to the emissions at 0% grade, the emissions at 4% grade will be boosted from 39.0% to 60.6%. The CO and NOx emissions increase with the road grades in all nine scenarios, while the variations of HC emissions in different scenarios were complicated. The findings of this research will provide insights for policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners into strategies for improving road design to reduce traffic emissions and develop sustainable transportation in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: road grades; heavy-duty vehicles; emissions; sustainable transportation; China road grades; heavy-duty vehicles; emissions; sustainable transportation; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, W.; Lu, J.; Xu, P.; Zhang, Y. Moving towards Sustainability: Road Grades and On-Road Emissions of Heavy-Duty Vehicles—A Case Study. Sustainability 2015, 7, 12644-12671.

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