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Sustainability 2015, 7(6), 7684-7713; doi:10.3390/su7067684

Development of the Social Inventory Database in Thailand Using Input–Output Analysis

National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand Science Park, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
Faculty of Environmental Studies, Tokyo City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-8551, Japan
The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Haberl
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 24 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2078 KB, uploaded 16 June 2015]   |  


The social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a technique for assessing social impact and potential impact that aims to evaluate the social and socio-economic aspects of products and their potential for both positive and negative impacts along their life cycle. The lack of a quantitative inventory data for social issues is a weakness of the S-LCA methodology to calculate social impacts. This study aims to establish a social inventory database in Thailand using input–output (IO) modeling. The 2005 economic IO table of Thailand is used in this study. The six different social issues are calculated for both direct and indirect social intensity. The social issues include employment, number of female employees, working hours, wages and salaries, and non-fatal and fatal occupational cases. The results indicate that the primary sector has the highest social intensity in terms of employment, female employment, and working hour intensity. Meanwhile, the secondary sector was higher in non-fatal occupational cases intensity than other sectors. For wages intensity, the results show that the government sector was higher than other sectors, it being labor intensive and of low economic value. In addition, the fatal occupational cases shows the highest intensity in the non-metallic mining, fertilizer and pesticides, and construction sectors. In terms of total social impacts or social footprints, the wholesale and retail trade sector had the highest impact for almost all social issues due to the higher final demand in this sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: social life cycle assessment (S-LCA); input-output analysis (IOA); social footprint; employment intensity; fatal intensity social life cycle assessment (S-LCA); input-output analysis (IOA); social footprint; employment intensity; fatal intensity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Papong, S.; Itsubo, N.; Malakul, P.; Shukuya, M. Development of the Social Inventory Database in Thailand Using Input–Output Analysis. Sustainability 2015, 7, 7684-7713.

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