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Retraction published on 22 April 2016, see Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 401.

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(10), 13904-13919; doi:10.3390/su71013904

A New Method to Energy Saving in a Micro Grid

Department of Astronautic, Electric and Energetic Engineering, “Sapienza” University of Rome, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marc A. Rosen, Francesco Asdrubali and Pietro Buzzini
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 2 October 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
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Abstract

Optimization of energy production systems is a relevant issue that must be considered in order to follow the fossil fuels consumption reduction policies and CO2 emission regulation. Increasing electricity production from renewable resources (e.g., photovoltaic systems and wind farms) is desirable but its unpredictability is a cause of problems for the main grid stability. A system with multiple energy sources represents an efficient solution, by realizing an interface among renewable energy sources, energy storage systems, and conventional power generators. Direct consequences of multi-energy systems are a wider energy flexibility and benefits for the electric grid, the purpose of this paper is to propose the best technology combination for electricity generation from a mix of renewable energy resources to satisfy the electrical needs. The paper identifies the optimal off-grid option and compares this with conventional grid extension, through the use of HOMER software. The solution obtained shows that a hybrid combination of renewable energy generators at an off-grid location can be a cost-effective alternative to grid extension and it is sustainable, techno-economically viable, and environmentally sound. The results show how this innovative energetic approach can provide a cost reduction in power supply and energy fees of 40% and 25%, respectively, and CO2 emission decrease attained around 18%. Furthermore, the multi-energy system taken as the case study has been optimized through the utilization of three different type of energy storage (Pb-Ac batteries, flywheels, and micro—Compressed Air Energy Storage (C.A.E.S.). View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-energy system; cost of energy; energy storage multi-energy system; cost of energy; energy storage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vallati, A.; Grignaffini, S.; Romagna, M. A New Method to Energy Saving in a Micro Grid. Sustainability 2015, 7, 13904-13919.

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