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Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 4749-4771; doi:10.3390/su6084749

Resource Use and Deprivation: Geographical Analysis of the Ecological Footprint and Townsend Index for England

1
Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
2
School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Open University of Cyprus, PO Box 12794, Nicosia 2252, Cyprus
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment in Sustainable Development)
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Abstract

The relationship between consumption and deprivation has been explored at various scales in the literature. It would be expected that increased deprivation leads to less consumption and vice versa. However, what is the form of that relationship? Evidence from international studies using the Human Development Index (HDI) and Ecological Footprint (EF) for nation states suggest that the relationship is curved such that an increase in HDI (decrease in deprivation) is linearly associated with an increase in EF (consumption and impact on the environment) up to a point but beyond that there can be widely different values for the EF for the same value of HDI. Given that deprivation and consumption within a single country can be expected to be more homogenous than that observed between countries does this result in a linear relationship between the two variables? We tested the relationship between the Townsend Index of Deprivation (TID) and EF for English regions, using fine scale data as derived from the UK Census and the Stockholm Environment Institute respectively. The results suggest that the relationship between the EF and deprivation for most English regions is markedly linear; with the level of deprivation declining with increasing EF. The picture is remarkably consistent across most of the regions and the only region where this simple picture becomes distorted is London. The paper discusses the relevance of this finding and implications for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ecological Footprint; Townsend Index of Deprivation; Human Development Index; England Ecological Footprint; Townsend Index of Deprivation; Human Development Index; England
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Morse, S.; Vogiatzakis, I.N. Resource Use and Deprivation: Geographical Analysis of the Ecological Footprint and Townsend Index for England. Sustainability 2014, 6, 4749-4771.

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