A correction was published on 22 May 2014, see Sustainability 2014, 6(5), 3122-3123.

Sustainability 2014, 6(4), 1761-1775; doi:10.3390/su6041761
Article

Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future

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Received: 27 April 2013; in revised form: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development Goals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: One of the next major challenges for research and policy on sustainability is setting the post-2015 Development Agenda. This challenge arises as a direct result of the formal ending of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015 and as an outcome of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). The post-2015 Development Agenda is expected to include two agendas: one on human well-being to advance the MDG targets and the other on planetary well-being, which requires a safe “operating space” within the Earth’s life-support system. In contrast to the MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are meant to apply to both developing and developed countries and create a space for development within the stable functioning of the Earth’s systems. However, what might this all look like? For answers, this paper reviews the achievements and reflections of the MDGs to date and identifies new challenges entailed in the shift of development goals from “millennium” to “sustainable”. While most of the existing studies look at these two sets of issues separately, combining the two reveals two important features of the SDGs. First, SDGs need to integrate both human and planetary well-being in a goal, and second, goals, or sub-goals, need to be formulated at multiple levels, from global to local levels. While the MDGs represented no integrated goals, some of the existing proposals on SDGs include integrated goals. However, our analysis has shown that they do not present the vertical diffusion of goals. Considering both integration and diffusion in the architecture of SDGs is a remaining task.
Keywords: post-2015 Development Agenda; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); human well-being; planetary well-being
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanie, N.; Abe, N.; Iguchi, M.; Yang, J.; Kabiri, N.; Kitamura, Y.; Mangagi, S.; Miyazawa, I.; Olsen, S.; Tasaki, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshida, T.; Hayakawa, Y. Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future. Sustainability 2014, 6, 1761-1775.

AMA Style

Kanie N, Abe N, Iguchi M, Yang J, Kabiri N, Kitamura Y, Mangagi S, Miyazawa I, Olsen S, Tasaki T, Yamamoto T, Yoshida T, Hayakawa Y. Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future. Sustainability. 2014; 6(4):1761-1775.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanie, Norichika; Abe, Naoya; Iguchi, Masahiko; Yang, Jue; Kabiri, Ngeta; Kitamura, Yuto; Mangagi, Shunsuke; Miyazawa, Ikuho; Olsen, Simon; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Taro; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Yuka. 2014. "Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future." Sustainability 6, no. 4: 1761-1775.

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