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Sustainability 2014, 6(11), 8092-8112; doi:10.3390/su6118092

McSustainability and McJustice: Certification, Alternative Food and Agriculture, and Social Change

Department of Sociology, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Sam Houston State University, Campus Box 2446, Huntsville, TX 77341, USA
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agricultural Governance)
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Abstract

Alternative food and agriculture movements increasingly rely on market-based approaches, particularly voluntary standards and certification, to advance environmental sustainability and social justice. Using a case study of an ecological shrimp project in Indonesia that became certified organic, this paper raises concerns regarding the impacts of certification on alternative food and agriculture movements, and their aims of furthering sustainability and justice. Drawing on George Ritzer’s McDonaldization framework, I argue that the ecological shrimp project became McDonaldized with the introduction of voluntary standards and certification. Specifically, efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control became key characteristics of the shrimp project. While the introduction of such characteristics increased market access, it also entailed significant costs, including an erosion of trust and marginalization and alienation of farmers. Given such tradeoffs, in concluding I propose that certification is producing particular forms of environmental sustainability and social justice, what I term McSustainability and McJustice. While enabling the expansion of alternative food and agriculture, McSustainability and McJustice tend to allow little opportunity for farmer empowerment and food sovereignty, as well as exclude aspects of sustainable farming or ethical production that are not easily measured, standardized, and validated. View Full-Text
Keywords: standards; certification; alternative food and agriculture; market-based approaches; shrimp aquaculture; social movements standards; certification; alternative food and agriculture; market-based approaches; shrimp aquaculture; social movements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hatanaka, M. McSustainability and McJustice: Certification, Alternative Food and Agriculture, and Social Change. Sustainability 2014, 6, 8092-8112.

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