Sustainability 2013, 5(6), 2288-2304; doi:10.3390/su5062288
Article

Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

1 Department of Chemistry, Uppsala BioCentre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7015, Uppsala 750 07, Sweden 2 Earth System Science-Climate Change and Adaptive Land and Water Management, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2013; in revised form: 4 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
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Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change). Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.
Keywords: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); Rhine river; climate change; water temperature; adaptation turning points

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bölscher, T.; van Slobbe, E.; van Vliet, M.T.; Werners, S.E. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case. Sustainability 2013, 5, 2288-2304.

AMA Style

Bölscher T, van Slobbe E, van Vliet MT, Werners SE. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case. Sustainability. 2013; 5(6):2288-2304.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bölscher, Tobias; van Slobbe, Erik; van Vliet, Michelle T.; Werners, Saskia E. 2013. "Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case." Sustainability 5, no. 6: 2288-2304.

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